The size of NASA’s observational data sets is growing dramatically as new missions come on line. Data is collected at unprecedented rates due to a wide range of high-resolution, high-throughput sensors, and new scientific models also produce huge data sets. However, algorithms and tools to satisfactorily analyze this Big Data are not available. Cloud computing offers a promising compute-and-store environment, that is complementary to supercomputing, in order to handle the massive data created by NASA missions. IAI and its collaborators from Indiana University have been awarded a contract entitled “Cloud-Based Analytics, Store and Query System (CASQUE) for Data-Intensive Scientific Processing.” A Cloud-based open architecture Analytics, Store and QUEry (CASQUE) system will be developed for data-intensive scientific computing for NASA missions. The architecture and workflow will be tailored for specific NASA missions and will be thoroughly tested in large-scale relevant cloud environments. Methods, tools and a cloud-based architecture will seamlessly submit and incorporate diverse data and metadata, allow open-access to scientifically collected data, support a cost-efficient working environment for scientific computation and open development, along with preferably open-source software and tools for efficient data management, processing, analysis and visualization. Though various data pre-processing and analysis tools are independently available for the research and science community, a seamless compute-and-analyze collaboration environment, which can lead to crowdsourcing for researchers and scientists, is still lacking. A cloud computing workflow and architecture, tailored for the needs of the scientific and research community, would be a cost-efficient asset for data analytics for different levels of processing.